Conduct a comprehensive analysis about environmental and environmental issue from the overall situation, make environmental quality assessments, formulate environmental standards, formulate environmental plans, adopt measures such as combination of prevention and treatment, manual treatment and natural purification, and implement pollution prevention and control by means of technology, economy and legal system. The best solution to achieve the purpose of protecting and improving the quality of the environment.
This comprehensive prevention and control idea has gradually formed in the past 30 years. In the 1950s, the comprehensive utilization of “three wastes” (waste water, waste gas, waste residue) was proposed. In 1972, at the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, “general planning, rational distribution, comprehensive utilization, harm reduction, and relying on the masses were formally proposed. The environmental protection work policy of “doing hands, protecting the environment and benefiting the people” has clarified the comprehensive prevention and control thinking of environmental pollution. Since many countries have taken the road of economic development at the expense of polluting the environment, destroying resources and ecology, since the 1950s, public hazards have become increasingly serious. People have begun to realize that the consequences of environmental pollution are extremely far-reaching, and the cost of managing the environment is huge. And traditional governance techniques are not compatible with the severity of environmental pollution. Therefore, many countries attach great importance to the comprehensive utilization of materials and rational development of resources, and limit the discharge of pollutants, so that environmental pollution prevention and control can be economic, reasonable and effective.
The basic guiding ideology for the comprehensive prevention and control of environmental pollution is to take the environment as an organic whole, and adopt comprehensive measures combining law, administration, economy and engineering technology according to the local natural conditions and according to the various links of the generation, change and destination of pollutants. In order to maximize the rational use of resources, reduce the generation and discharge of pollutants, use the most economical methods to obtain the best control effect.
Integrated environmental pollution prevention is a concept that is opposed to individual governance. From the object, it considers various environmental factors such as the atmosphere, water, and soil, instead of focusing on one of the environmental factors; from the goal, it considers resources, economy, ecology, and human health, rather than Limited to one of the single goals. Various comprehensive prevention and control measures should be taken for various environmental pollution problems.
Comprehensive prevention and control of environmental pollution should follow the following principles according to local specific conditions:
1 Combination of technology and economy. In order to formulate an integrated prevention and control plan, in addition to considering technological advancement, economic rationality must also be considered. The corresponding economic analysis should be included in the plan.
2 Prevention and treatment combined to prevent the main. In the aspect of “defense”, we will focus on strengthening environmental planning and management; in the aspect of “governance”, we will focus on the comprehensive application of various technical measures.
3 Combination of artificial treatment and natural purification. In order to save environmental treatment costs, natural purification capacity should be fully utilized. For example, according to the natural purification capacity of the atmosphere, water and soil in the regional environment, economically reasonable discharge standards and emission methods should be determined.
4 Combine development and protection of the environment. The production department should strengthen resource management while developing production, prevent waste of resources, and implement comprehensive environmental management measures within the enterprise through reform processes and comprehensive utilization to reduce pollutant emissions and treatment.
To do a good job in comprehensive prevention and control of environmental pollution, we must do a good job in research on environmental pollution monitoring and environmental quality assessment. Environmental pollution monitoring is the basis of comprehensive prevention and control, and environmental quality assessment is the premise of comprehensive prevention and control. For new plant enterprises and engineering projects, environmental impact assessment should be carried out before construction.
In recent years, application of electronic computers, mathematical simulations, and the development of cybernetics and systems engineering have provided technical means for comprehensive prevention and control of environmental pollution.